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Chemical Evolution of the Universe

Проголосовать за курс:
Anna Chashkina
SAI MSU
Have you ever thought about what are we, the Sun and other stars made of? How the matter we encounter in our everyday life was formed and how did that far away in deep space? Did the atoms and molecules we meet today exist always? How do stars change composition of the Universe? What will the atoms and molecules in the distant future, after billions years, be like? We will try to answer these questions in our popular course ”Chemical evolution of the Universe”.

Урок: Composition of the Universe

План курса:

  1. Introduction. "What is the Universe made of?"
    We will give a description of the modern knowledge about the structure of matter from elementary particles to clusters of galaxies. Basics of nuclear physics and chemistry of elements will be provided. Also we will talk about abundances of elements in the Universe. There will be 5 lessons:
    1. Matter structure from elementary particles to molecules.
    2. Nuclei and nuclear reactions
    3. Spectral analysis
    4. Dark matter and dark energy
  2. Primordial nucleosynthesis.
    What happened in the Universe during the first three minutes, when first nuclei formed? We are planning 5 lessons:
    1. Introduction to cosmology with historical overview.
    2. Hot Universe and the Big Bang theory.
    3. Birth of elements.
    4. Debris of the Big Bang.
    5. From cosmological microwave background radiation to first stars.
  3. Stars and stellar nucleosynthesis.
    Stars as the main engine of nuclear evolution, that transforms hydrogen to helium with energy release. Six lessons will be the best.
    1. Stellar structure and stellar zoo.
    2. Thermonuclear reactions and the main sequence.
    3. Triple alpha-process and shell fusion.
    4. Production of heavy nuclei.
    5. Massive stars and supernova explosions.
    6. Binary systems, novae and neutron stars.
  4. The currents of space.
    We will discuss how different elements shine and spread in the interstellar medium. This section will consist of 5 lessons:
    1. Basic description of interstellar medium.
    2. Dust.
    3. Molecular clouds. Astrochemistry.
    4. Emission nebulae.
    5. Hot and intergalactic gas.
  5. Casting “metals".
    In every stellar core, certain heavy nuclei are produced, but this is not enough for them to become visible. In fact, heavy elements should migrate somehow toward the surface of the stars. Besides, many stars expel material enriched in heavy elements that can enter the next generation of stars. In this section, we will consider the ubiquitous process of production of heavy elements that is the overall vector of chemical evolution in our times. Five lessons:
    1. Low metallicity stars. Subdwarfs.
    2. First stars.
    3. Contribution of massive and low-mass stars.
    4. Our future: the "iron age" and the empty Universe
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